Common Teaching Methods
Th.ba, 11/05/2010, 11:52 Lượt xem: 2631

1. Lecture

 

STRENGTHS:

- presents factual material in direct, logical manner

- contains experience which inspires

- stimulates thinking to open discussion

- useful for large groups

LIMITATIONS:

- experts are not always good teachers

- audience is passive

- learning is difficult to gauge

- communication in one way

PREPARATION:

- needs clear introduction and summary

- needs time and content limit to be effective

- should include examples, anecdotes

 

2. Lecture With Discussion

 

STRENGTHS:

- involves audience at least after the lecture

- audience can question, clarify & challenge

LIMITATIONS:

- time may limit discussion period

- quality is limited to quality of questions and discussion

PREPARATION:

- requires that questions be prepared prior to discussion

 

3. Panel of Experts

 

STRENGTHS:

- allows experts to present different opinions

- can provoke better discussion than a one person discussion

- frequent change of speaker keeps attention from lagging

LIMITATIONS:

- experts may not be good speakers

- personalities may overshadow content

- subject may not be in logical order

PREPARATION:

- facilitator coordinates focus of panel, introduces and summarizes

- briefs panel

 

4. Brainstorming


 

STRENGTHS:

- listening exercise that allows creative thinking for new ideas

- encourages full participation because all ideas equally recorded

- draws on group's knowledge and experience

- spirit of congeniality is created

- one idea can spark off other other ideas

LIMITATIONS:

- can be unfocused

- needs to be limited to 5 - 7 minutes

- people may have difficulty getting away from known reality

- if not facilitated well, criticism and evaluation may occur

PREPARATION:

- facilitator selects issue

- must have some ideas if group needs to be stimulated

 

5. Videotapes

 

STRENGTHS:

- entertaining way of teaching content and raising issues

- keep group's attention

- looks professional

- stimulates discussion

LIMITATIONS:

- can raise too many issues to have a focused discussion

- discussion may not have full participation

- only as effective as following discussion

PREPARATION:

- need to set up equipment

- effective only if facilitator prepares questions to discuss after the show

 

6. Class Discussion

 

STRENGTHS:

- pools ideas and experiences from group

- effective after a presentation, film or experience that needs to be analyzed

- allows everyone to participate in an active process

LIMITATIONS:

- not practical with more that 20 people

- few people can dominate

- others may not participate

- is time consuming

- can get off the track

PREPARATION:

- requires careful planning by facilitator to guide discussion

- requires question outline

7. Small Group Discussion

 

STRENGTHS:

- allows participation of everyone

- people often more comfortable in small groups

- can reach group consensus

LIMITATIONS:

- needs careful thought as to purpose of group

- groups may get side tracked

PREPARATION:

- needs to prepare specific tasks or questions for group to answer

 

8. Case Studies

 

STRENGTHS:

- develops analytic and problem solving skills

- allows for exploration of solutions for complex issues

- allows student to apply new knowledge and skills

LIMITATIONS:

- people may not see relevance to own situation

- insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results

PREPARATION:

- case must be clearly defined in some cases

- case study must be prepared

 

9. Role Playing

 

STRENGTHS:

- introduces problem situation dramatically

- provides opportunity for people to assume roles of others and thus appreciate another point of view

- allows for exploration of solutions

- provides opportunity to practice skills

LIMITATIONS:

- people may be too self-conscious

- not appropriate for large groups

- people may feel threatened

PREPARATION:

- trainer has to define problem situation and roles clearly

- trainer must give very clear instructions

 

10. Report-Back Sessions

 

STRENGTHS:

- allows for large group discussion of role plays, case studies, and small group exercise

- gives people a chance to reflect on experience

- each group takes responsibility for its operation

LIMITATIONS:

- can be repetitive if each small group says the same thing

PREPARATION:

- trainer has to prepare questions for groups to discuss

 

11. Worksheets/Surveys

 

STRENGTHS:

- allows people to thing for themselves without being influences by others

- individual thoughts can then be shared in large group

LIMITATIONS:

- can be used only for short period of time

PREPARATION:

- facilitator has to prepare handouts

 

12. Index Card Exercise

 

STRENGTHS:

- opportunity to explore difficult and complex issues

LIMITATIONS:

- people may not do exercise

PREPARATION:

- facilitator must prepare questions

 

13. Guest Speaker

 

STRENGTHS:

- personalizes topic

- breaks down audience's stereotypes

LIMITATIONS:

- may not be a good speaker

PREPARATION:

- contact speakers and coordinate

- introduce speaker appropriately

 

14. Values Clarification Exercise

 

STRENGTHS:

- opportunity to explore values and beliefs

- allows people to discuss values in a safe environment

- gives structure to discussion

LIMITATION:

- people may not be honest

- people may be too self-conscious

PREPARATION:

- facilitator must carefully prepare exercise

- must give clear instructions

- facilitator must prepare discussion questions

 

Source: From "Getting the Most out of Your AIDS/HIV Trainings